To continue our range of Cognac educational articles we journey to a Cognac phenomenon that’s shrouded in mystery—namely, that of rancio. Indeed, if you need further evidence that this is a subject that’s truly open to interpretation, you need only ask a group of Cognac connoisseurs, what is rancio?

The mere mention of the word is sure to spark a lively discussion—and one that is undoubtedly best carried out during a lengthy Cognac tasting session.

Rancio Cognac tasting

What is Rancio?

The basic premise of rancio or, to be more precise, rancio charantais, is a characteristic that gradually develops during the aging process. The word is used to describe certain aromas, flavors, and mouthfeel that only begins to become apparent after eau-de-vie has spent a lengthy period within oak barrels—anywhere from 10-20 years is considered to be the point at which rancio begins to evolve.

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
Cognac must spend many years within oak barrels before the evolution of rancio begins

The word itself comes from Portugal, and is used to describe the characteristics of port wine as it ages. Rancio Charantais is peculiar to Cognac, and you might also hear it referred to as Charente Rancio.

The longer a Cognac remains in oak barrels, the more intense the rancio becomes.

Rancio: A chemical process

The aging process of the brandy in a barrel is what produces the hallowed phenomenon that is rancio. Without getting too technical, one of the main reactions responsible for rancio is derived through the oxidation of fatty acids within the spirit evolving into ketones. This creates tones that many describe as earthy, mushroomy, nutty, or even buttery. 

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
Buttery, bitter caramel is often used to describe rancio

The key aspect to understand about rancio is that, because no two people’s nose and palate are the same, we find a plethora of descriptive words used to describe it.

The 4 distinct stages of rancio

While you might find some differing opinions as to how long a Cognac needs to age before rancio becomes apparent, it’s generally accepted that there are a number of stages. Another important aspect is that while humans can only taste five distinct profiles (sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami), we can smell tens of thousands of different aromas. Therefore the concept of rancio is perhaps better noted on the nose than on the palate.

Max is tasting Cognac
Great rancio is well appreciated through its heady combination of aromas

So let’s take a look at the different stages of rancio.

Stage 1: Known as early-rancio, can start to evolve from 10 years of aging onwards, although it’s perhaps more typically found after 15 years or so. Some experts might even consider early-rancio to be found in Cognacs up to 30 years old. As we said, this is a subject that’s truly a matter of personal interpretation.

During this stage rancio is dominated by flowery, nutty, dried fruit and spicy tones.

Stage 2: From 20-30 years of aging. During this period, rancio begins to evolve into further earthy, mushroom, and spicy tones—think curry, saffron, and ginger, as well as more intensity of dried and candied fruits with an undertone of soft, damp forest earth.

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
The smell of rich earth is commonly used to describe rancio

Stage 3: This is where the magic really begins to occur. From 30 through to 40 or even 50 years the complexity intensifies. Pungent, increasingly spicy notes emerge, as do the smoky tones of a cigar box, tobacco, cedar, old tawny port, and muscat wine. 

Stage 4: Now we arrive at the hallowed state of rancio-personified. From 40-50 years onwards the evolution is nothing short of miraculous. Prepare to be transported to tropical shores, where aromas of overripe tropical fruits, lychee, passion fruit, and sandalwood mingle with that of walking into a grandiose property of yester-year, where the gentle aromas of library shelves filled with old books and the polished leather of aged horse tackle on display pervades the air. 

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
Nothing is more delightful than a Cognac tasting room that boasts aromas of truly well-aged eau-de-vie

As you can see, the concept is a complicated one. However, when trying to determine rancio when you enjoy old Cognacs it might help to group the aromas and flavors into the following categories:

Fruit tones: Includes citrus, orange peel, orchard fruits, blackcurrants, dried fruits, fig, lychee, and candied fruit peel.

Floral tones:  Think honeysuckle, jasmin, dried rose petals, acacia flowers, and geranium.

Nutty tones: Such as walnut, grilled almonds, hazelnut, and marzipan.

Earthy tones: The delights of truffles, mushrooms, smoky, and deep forest aromas. These tones are especially what many consider to be the epitome of rancio charantais.

Vegetative tones: Including mint, tea, olives, tobacco, and eucalyptus

Caramelized tones: Notes of butterscotch, toffee, dark chocolate, and honey

Rancio in Cognac: We ask the experts

Of course, with something as subjective as that of rancio, it’s essential that we understand what some of the leading figures in the world of Cognac have to say. We contacted three experts from the houses of Prunier Cognac, Bertrand Cognac, and Jean Luc Pasquet Cognac and posed them the following questions:

What does rancio mean to you?

How would you describe the taste of rancio?

Which of your Cognacs provides a great example of well-developed rancio?

This is what they told us.

Stéphane Burnez (Prunier Cognac)

It is a tricky question , what is the rancio?

I started to taste Cognacs over 40 years ago. Back then, when people described rancio, I wasn’t able to give a clear definition. To me it meant something old, woody, and deep. Now, I can describe rancio as an end of a very good evolution of a cognac aged in good conditions (humid cellar).

This is a combination of finesse, aromas of wood (oak combined with bees wax),the smell of a forest during the fall, and very deep complexity. For me, it’s more of an impression than a taste or a smell.

Fall in the Cognac region
The smell of a forest during the fall—a worth description of rancio from Stéphane Burnez of Prunier Cognac

Some of our vintages are typically showing my idea of rancio, like our Prunier Grande Champagne 1967, or the Borderies 1975. Our Prunier XO shows the premise of the rancio. If you want to understand my idea of rancio, taste our Tres Vieille Grande Champagne.

2. Thérèse Bertrand (Bertrand Cognac)

Rancio is a tasting note a bit more rare to find.

It is found in very old cognacs. It is what you smell when you open the door to a cellar full of old Cognacs. (A mix of humidity from the mushroom, the old wood barrels, and the evaporation of old Cognac)

You will find different explanations to it but it’s my way to describe it.

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
Thérèse Bertrand describes the concept as walking into a cellar full of old Cognacs

Our Bertrand Heritage Limited Edition Cognac has the perfect definition of Rancio. It was tasted by several bloggers/wine tasters and they all said the same.

3. Amy Pasquet (Jean Luc Pasquet Cognac)

For me, rancio is that buttery smell, taste, and mouth feel that comes with older Cognacs that have been distilled on the lees and have not been chill-filtered. 

Lees are the sediment from fermentation and contain the yeast, along with other solids, that are left in the wine. We have always distilled on the lees, like the house of Rémy Martin. Historically, Martell asks for only clear wine. 

Jean pasquet
Jean’s wife, Amy Pasquet, determines rancio as a buttery smell, taste, and mouthfeel

Since the lees were once living beings they contain fatty acids, which are not volatile, so they remain in the distillate. They oxidize during the lengthy maturation process, creating that specific charentais rancio typical of older Cognacs. 

Our Pasquet Très Vieille Réserve contains eaux-de-vie distilled from grapes harvested on our property probably more than a century ago, as well as some from the early 1970s, making it our oldest Cognac available. It is also the one from our house that best exemplifies charentais rancio notes.

So there you have it—from the experts themselves… As you can see, the answer to “what is rancio”, even for those who’ve dedicated their lives to the creation of Cognac, certainly doesn’t have a single definitive description.

What is Rancio in Cognac? The conclusion

To sum up, Rancio in Cognac can be described as the following:

Rancio is aromas and flavors that only develop after extensive aging in oak barrels (perhaps from 10 years onwards but more typically after 15-20 years)

Because humans can distinguish far more aromas than flavors, rancio is more easily noticed on the nose than the palate.

Typical aromas that describe well-developed rancio include that of mushroom, earthy, nutty, and cheesy. Stage 4 racio moves into the territory of tropical fruits, old leather, and parchment.

Rancio also has an effect on how Cognac feels in the mouth. Some describe it as buttery, others as a nut-like oiliness.

Rancio itself changes as aging progresses. The most intense rancio is found in Cognacs aged for 40 years or more.

All About Rancio: The mysterious Cognac phenomenon
We take our tasting sessions seriously at Cognac Expert!

So there you have it! Rancio might not be easy to describe, but it sure is fun trying to understand it. We hope you’ve found this helpful, and, of course, we’d love to hear your opinion on the subject. Perhaps let us know any Cognacs you’ve discovered that offer great rancio or give us your description of what it means to you. Head over to our private Facebook group, Cognac Lovers, and join in the lively discussions that are always taking place there. 

Here’s to rancio and, as always, the joy of Cognac discovery. Salut…

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Jacki has been with Cognac Expert from virtually the beginning. She's the senior editor of the blog, and has spent much of her life living in rural France. Today she's based back in the UK, where she splits her working life between writing for Cognac Expert and working as a Paramedic at a large regional hospital.

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