When you start discovering Cognac, one of the first things you notice is that each bottle has a different age-specific rating. The most common ratings are VS Cognac, VSOP Cognac, and XO Cognac. But what does this actually mean? And what about blending – how does that work?

Get an overview of every Cognac age category in our online shop.

From VS to XO

Let’s start at the beginning by discovering exactly what these terms actually mean:

VS stands for ‘Very Special’

Alternatively, ✯✯✯ (three stars), means exactly the same as VS. So if you see a bottle with three stars on it, you know it’s a VS Cognac. A blend qualifies as a VS Cognac if it consists of eaux-de-vie aged in oak barrels for a minimum of 2 years.

VSOP means ‘Very Superior Old Pale’

Officially, according to the BNIC, V.S.O.P. stands for Very Superior Old Pale.  However, it’s often referred to as Very Special Old Pale. A VSOP Cognac is where the youngest brandy in the blend is aged for at least four years in barrels. However, the average age of Cognacs in the VSOP category may well be older than this. It’s the youngest eau-de-vie in the blend that determines the actual quality of the Cognac. Meaning the moment a four-year-old eau-de-vie is incorporated in the blend it automatically becomes a V.S.O.P. Cognac – even if every other component is much older.

The origin of the expression V.S.O.P. dates back to an order made by the British Royal Court in 1817. They required what was then termed a ‘Cognac Pale.’ In other words, a Cognac that is not sweetened or colored by the addition of sugar and caramel. At that time it was very common to take advantage of using such additives. This is how the term was born.

Other designations for VSOP are “Reserve” or simply “Old”. Interestingly, when the Cognac culture first became popular, and before the terminology that we use today came to be, the spirit was either referred to as simply Cognac – or Cognac Eau de Vie.

XO means ‘Extra Old’

XO stands for Extra Old, and it describes a Cognac consisting of eaux-de-vie that have been aged in oak barrels for a minimum of six years. However, XOs often have a much older average age, with many XO Cognacs being 20 years old and older.  There has been much talk that the minimum age for a component in an XO Cognac is to be raised to 10 years.  And this is now due to change from 01 April 2018.  However, there is a period of adjustment, during which Cognacs aged six-nine years can still be called an XO until March 31, 2019, as long as they follow some predesignated BNIC rules concerning the packaging.

The expression XO was used for the first time in 1870. An XO Cognac can also be called “Napoleon” or “Old Reserve.”

VS, VSOP and XO timeline of ageing

Other Cognac ratings

(Just to add to the confusion…)

– Cognac Napoléon  A Cognac described as Napoléon is equal to an XO in terms of age. However, a Napoleon Cognac is usually marketed as an in-between category of VSOP and XO.

Extra  This is a Cognac that is at least 6 years old, in theory, the same as an XO.  The rating is often used to label a blend that is more superior to an XO.

– Vieux  A Cognac marked as such represents a grade between the official grades of VSOP and XO.

Vieille Réserve  This means more or less the same as Hors d’Age, a grade beyond XO (see below).

Hors d’Age  Officially, the BNIC states this as being equal to XO.  In the industry, it’s used to communicate a very high-quality product, one that is beyond an official age rating.  The literal translation of Hors d’Age is ‘beyond age.’

Vintage  A Vintage Cognac means that the Cognac is a single blend from one particular year. It’s a single year’s harvest that’s aged for a certain period of time in oak barrels and then bottled. There is no age limitation. What’s important to know is that a Vintage Cognac from 1983, for instance, was harvested in 1983 but maybe bottled in 2013. What’s important is the year of the harvest.

All these specifications are closely monitored by the French agricultural ministry.

Because of the close relations between Cognac and the United Kingdom back in the day, lots of the words and expressions used have British origins. However, although the above explains the official designation of the various terms, this doesn’t necessarily make them easy to understand.

VS, VSOP, XO, Napoléon Cognac: What Does It Mean?

The blending between Cognac ages

Blending different ages of eaux-de-vie is what determines the grade and quality of the final product. Never mind in what proportion, the youngest eau-de-vie in the blend is what determines the age category.

For example, you might find that large producers blend some drops of a very old and mature Cognac with a small amount of middle-aged Cognac, and then complete the blend with a younger Cognac. They can market the bottle as an XO if the youngest eau-de-vie is of 6 years of age or more, but it will be an XO of superior quality. And naturally, the larger houses have an advantage when it comes to their choices of eaux-de-vie because they have contracts with various winegrowers and extensive stock in their cellars.

When Cognac is mass-produced at low cost, it features mainly very young eaux-de-vie. There’s the danger of being flat, and the finish being short, a little rough, or even unpleasant. However, single vineyard Cognacs (also known as single estate Cognacs) and larger Cognac houses with a traditional philosophy tend to have a completely different approach. For instance, a master blender may use 23 to 27-year-old eaux-de-vie for blending an XO in order to create a full body with character. And in such an instance, you really can taste the difference!

Large brands such as Hennessy or Martell need to reproduce the flavor profile of their products over and over again with the stock they have. This requires great skill. Read our article about Hennessy craft of production.

Check out the Cognac ages in our online shop!

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VS, VSOP, XO, Napoléon Cognac: What Does It Mean?

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Max is a spirits expert and speaker, into marketing, technology, startups, and business development. He’s also a farmer. He likes tools and machines, Game of Thrones, and Better Call Saul. Included in his Top 10 Cognacs are the Audry XO and Bache Gabrielsen 1973.Max founded Cognac Expert in 2010 at his family’s estate in Poullignac, in the Cognac region, France. Started as a blog, today Cognac Expert is the world’s largest website about all things Cognac, a blog, and a specialized online shop featuring 800+ different Cognac bottles.


  1. Avatar

    i have a 1812 jules raucine, napoleon grande old cognac brandy and want to find out what its worth

  2. Avatar
    Jesper Veiby

    In several (older) (and danish) books or encyclopiae on the topic of cognac the following ratings are consistently mentioned:
    * (1 star) = 3 years
    ** = 4 years
    *** = 5 years
    VS = 10 years
    VSO = 15 years
    VSOP = 20 years
    This is somewhat different from what is mentioned above. Even if the years of maturing might refer to say an average in stead of a minimum.
    Can you explain this? Has the ratings changed? Are these older ratings not used anymore?

  3. Avatar
    Bob Dickson

    In 1964-67 I was given a bottle of Remi Martin VSOP age unknown – 1st served to the Queen and Philip in 1947 (I think this was written on the tag – tag lost) – What would the value of this be now?

  4. Avatar

    i e mailed your company on the 29th of August, 2011 regarding a bottle of otard55 cognac.
    i included photos with my e mail and was wondering on a value.
    as to date (13th September, 2011) I have not received a response.
    If you could e mail me back regarding this matter (in case my e mail did not get to you ) i would appreciate it.

  5. Avatar
    E Patten

    what is the signafince of a united nations symbol on a bottle of otard xo cognac packaged in a wooden box with the UN symbol on the box as well?

  6. Avatar
    E Patten

    in responce to #6 i sent a picture with U.N. symbol on the bottle.What if any is the signafince?

  7. Avatar

    I hace a bottle of Courvoisie Grande Fine Champagne ExtraVielle. Bought in 1971.Dark frosted bottle with E stamped in the bottom along with SG in a square box. Can you give me any info..ie when Mfg and value.

  8. Avatar
    peter yeung

    My father bought a bottle of Nepolean V.S.O.P Cognac Courvoisier in Dark Green
    Bottle with US at the bottom of the bottle in original green box about 45 years
    ago in Hong Kong. Can you give me any information how to sell it and how
    much will it cost.

  9. Avatar

    I am trying to find the value of a bottle of Otard VSOP Cognac (old style bottle,slim neck) Original red box.70 cl. Can anyone help PLEASE

  10. Avatar

    I am trying to figure out what year my bottle of courvoisier v.s. cognac is. It says le cognac de napoleon 750ml. It is a green bottle with a burgundy collar. It came in a set with two glasses, I could not located a date on the bottle or on the box. . . . any ideas?!

  11. Avatar
    M. Glazebrook

    I was given a whimsical decanter of Cognac some years ago. The label indicates Napoleon Grande Champagne from Elie-Arnaud Denoix. The bottle is in the shape of a Dauchshund. I have had it for about 7 years. Have not been able to find any info on it. From the information above would you be able to tell me how old it might be and its value!

  12. Avatar
    eugene flynn

    I have a years 30 old cognac napoleon brand sealed bottle.84 proof,4/5 quart,produce of france,richard freres-cognac-france,imported by cartier & co beverly hills,calif..cream label with green frame.had over 55 years.what is this worth,thanks.

  13. Avatar

    Have a bottle of Remy Martin Napoleon champagne cognac green bottle in a Red box no date. How much is this worth?

  14. Avatar

    I have VSOP Fine champagne which have at the bottom A .SG E COURVOISIER L1019013,if want this old bottle,please email to me.

  15. Avatar

    A bottle VSOP who is 20+ years old will allways be a VOSP bottle. The ageing is made in Barrel. This will never be a XO Cognac like the old flash in refrigereitor will never be procioto, Or the congelait chease vill never be parmezan !

  16. Pingback: Forskjellen på VS, VSOP og XO Cognac

  17. Avatar
    Ole Cigar

    To most of you asking about the value of your old cognacs: There is no development of the cognac on the bottle like in winebottles. What you have is a cognac of a quality I would never drink. Keep the bottle as a memory of something and put the cognac in the coffee.

    “And naturally, the larger houses have an advantage when it comes to their choices of eaux-de-vie, simply due to their contracts with various winegrowers and extensive stocks within their cellars.”

    I do not consider this to be an advantage!
    Just use the Hennesy XO as an example. They tell us “it is a unique blend of 64 eau-de-vie’s”.
    I want the best samples of the 64 eau-de-vie’s. Not number 62, 63 or 64!
    This is another bullshit story by Hennesy. The truth is Hennesy must use all of these contracted cognacs -the ones of lower quality as well. What better story to tell us than it is “a unique blend of 64 eau-de-vie’s”?
    Then add an amount of sugar to camouflage the distallates of lower quality and the marketing department is ready to roll…

    Stay with the small and honest producers like Ragnaud-Sabourin, Jean Fillioux, Leopold Gourmel and Normandin-Mercier. You get better cognac than Remy Martin Louis XIII at one tenth of the price.

  18. Avatar

    I understand that Kenyan Cognac is as good as any French Cognac. Has anyone tasted Cognac from Kenya pls? I have been offered a bottle in Nairobi.

  19. Avatar

    I own a bottle of 1812 Napoleo Fine Old
    Grand Fine Champagne Cognac
    Jules RacinEet CIE
    Net contents 26 Fi
    Do you know the value and history?

  20. Avatar

    I have a bottle labeled “Cognac Napoleon Grande Reserve”, No date but the bottom of the bottle has a number 168. Can you help me with identifying it?


  21. Avatar
    Mario Amato

    Hi, about 1 month ago, on a special occasion, an age unknown bottle of COURVOISIER FINE CHAMPAIGNE COGNAC (with a map denoting the geographic area) and the ever present Le Cognac de Napoleon. When I tried to open the bottle the plastic top broke off. We were quite disappointed as the bottle had been saved for a special occasion. We managed to open the bottle anf filtered the fallen cap residue. Imagine our disappointment when the taste of the liquor was quite foul and undrinkable. I advised my collegues, as a regular Courvoisier user that I would reach the company and expressed confidence that the company would make it right. I was wrong, after sendind the details and pictures of the bottle, I was asked to look for a number on the bottle as it did not have the normal lines for scanning. Their response…. the bottle, according to the numbers given, was over 3 years old and as a result, was passed the quality guarantee by the company – later on I was advised by a manager tyhey could not take reponsability for improper storage. I am a Cognac lover, not an expert. I have never heard of any of that info. I requested the company do the right thing as a public relation gesture. The request was denied and my request to speak to a superior (all in email) has so far been ignored. I very much want to persue this further. Any suggestions? I am considering the French Minister of Agriculture. I find it difficult to accept that the proud french people would go out of thir way to cheat a customer. Your thoughts would be appreciated. Merci Beaucoup! Mario

  22. Avatar
    Max (Cognac-Expert.com)

    Hey Mario thanks for your detailed message.

    It’s interesting that the liquor seemed to be foul. Was the cork perhaps entirely broken? Where was the level in the bottle neck? Upper, lower..?

    Also, it would be good to know when this bottle was produced, is it a recent product or was the cognac bottled 10,20,30 years ago?


  23. Avatar

    thanks for your infomative webste. I have been trying to work out what to do with some old bottles left in my aunt’s house when she died. I am still confused though about a Napoleon Grand OX Reserve [not XO] that has a green and red paper seal with ‘Spirograph type patterns on and QR No424450 printed on. I don’t really drink so should I sel /,give [do any charities accept alcohol? /, throw or put it on the Cheistmas pud?
    Thanks for any info

  24. Avatar

    I’m curious. You solicit comments but never answer them.

  25. Avatar
    joan oosthuizen

    I have a bottle of Napoleon d’or marked as blended by M Bredon in South Africa and would like to know what the value of it is as i intend selling it along with a collection of whiskies as well

  26. Avatar
    Paddy Fields

    I’ve got a bottle Marked XO Jizz. Should I drink it?

  27. Avatar

    “There is no development of the cognac on the bottle like in winebottles”. So, what is happening than? Nothing? Does it loos a value, taste, aroma…?

  28. Avatar
    Cognac importer

    All you people with your old bottles of cognac. Don’t be a victim of marketing. Use it to light fires and keep warm in the winter.

  29. Avatar

    I read with concern the report from Mario Amato in December 2014. Courvoisier has always left me unimpressed from when I first tried it as a teenager and I am a pensioner now. A brand I would avoid at all costs. I cannot imagine what ill treatment would turn the cognac foul and the attitude of the Courvoisier company is as disgusting as their product. As for their guarantee period, I have cognacs that were sold thirty years ago and they are still delivering great pleasure.

    I hope others here take note.

    If it is of any interest, I have always found Hine and Frapin to be fine producers and I have bottles from each.

  30. Avatar


    Im new to cognac. I think it would be very appreciated by me and many others if you could do a like a top 10 list for “must try” cognacs in the cheaper segment. Say under 60 dollars. Just to help us new to find differences, new tastes etc. Its a jungle!

    Best regards.

  31. Avatar

    I have a bottle of napoleon cognac
    That printed cz7993
    Could you help me what does it mean

  32. Avatar

    I am buying a brandy for the missus’s birthday and in the past I have got her Three Barrels VSOP but I have seen the likes of Courvoisier VS Cognac, now I get the age grading but will a VS be better than a similar priced VSOP or should you stick with a VSOP ? I know I’m comparing a Brandy to a Cognac and it may be like lemons and oranges, sorry I am new to all this.

  33. Avatar
    Chris Stevens

    I live in the UK, many years ago I was introduced to Early landed Cognacs, over the years i’ve bought Cognacs which I’m sure were fake. The question I have is can a cognac have a shipping year which is the same as the landing year. I’m pretty sure that Cognac doesn’t become Cognac until 2 years after distillation, therefore the others are wrong uns !

  34. Avatar

    Originally in the 1900’s cognac was labelled with diamonds for quality of the cognac until the English distinguished the VS/VSOP/XO labelling system years later, I am guessing the star system was an offshoot of this but I don’t know. Do you have any info on if it how they graded cognacs originally with this diamond system and if this was the same as the star system?

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